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Basalt Continuous Fiber

Article Index
Basalt Continuous Fiber
PRIMARY BCF PRODUCTS: BCF ROVING, CHOPPED FIBER, BCF YARN
Application of Basalt continuous fiber materials
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BASALT CONTINUOUS FIBER BASIC CHARACTERISTICS and ADVANTAGES.
MAIN CONSUMERS and RANGES OF USE BCF-BASED MATERIALS

 

Today significant and steady growth of manufacture of composite materials is observed in the world. One of the basic reinforcing elements of composite materials is fibers. Besides, fibrous materials are widely applied in quality of thermal, sound-proof, and filtering materials.

Now for this purpose glass fibers are widely applied, and for particularly responsible and expensive products carbon fibers are used. However these materials not completely meet the requirements of the present stage. Glass fiber has the certain restrictions under the characteristics: specific durability, temperature of application, chemical stability, especially in alkaline environments. By producing of glass fiber especially scarce component are used – oxide boron (B2O3). Carbon fibers at their high cost have no prospects of mass application.

Therefore to present time it is executed a several works on development of modern "know-how" of continuous fibers from basalt breeds, the industrial producing of basalt continuous fibers and materials on their basis are started. By industrial production of basalt fibers use of new technologies their cost price is close to the cost of glass fiber, and more times cheaper then cost price of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber is more durable material as compared to glass fiber, but other properties of carbon fiber are close to the properties of basalt fiber. Basalt fiber is perspective for substituting costly carbon fiber and producing combined carbon-basalt composite materials.

Thus basalt fibers and materials on their basis have the most preferable parameter a ratio of quality and the price in comparison with glass and carbon fibers, and other types of fibers.

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS & ADVANTAGES CBF

Tabl.1. Comparative Characteristics Between CBF Fiber & Other Fiber
CapabilityCBFE-glass fiberS-glass fiberCarbon fiber
Tensile strength, MPa
3000~4840 3100~3800 4020~4650 3500~6000
Elastic modulus, gPa
79.3~93.1 72.5~75.5 83~86 230~600
Elongation at break, %
3.1 4.7 5.3 1.5~2.0
Diameter of filament, mµ
6~21 6~21 6~21 5~15
tex
60~4200 40~4200 40~4200 60~2400
Temperature of application, °Ñ
-260~+600 -50~+380 -50 +300 -50~+700
Price, USD/kg
2,5-3.0 1,1 1,5-2.5 30-50
 

High durability

Strength-to-weight ratio of a basalt fiber exceeds strength of alloyed steel 2.5 times, strength of fiber glass – 1.5 times.

Tabl.2.   Breaking strength-to-weight ratio for CBF various diameters
Continues Filaments’ diameter, µm
5.0 6.0 8.0 9.0 11.0
Breaking strength-to-weight ratio of elementary fibers,kg/mm²
215 210 208 214 212
 

 

Tabl.3.   Breaking strength of CBF roving type RB-10
Diameter of elementary fibers, µmTexBreaking strength, N
10 600 400
10 1200 700
 

High chemical durability to impacts of water, salts, alkalis and acids

Unlike metal, BCF is not affected by corrosion. Unlike fiber glass, BCF is not affected by alkali. BCF possess high corrosion and chemical durability qualities towards corrosive mediums, such as salts and acids solutions and, especially, alkalis. 

Tabl.4.   Chemical durability of CBF
Diameter of elementary fibers , µmH2O0.5 n NaOH2 n NaOH2 n HCl
17 99.63 98.3 92.8 76.9
12 99.7 98.9 90.7 49.9
9 99.6 94.6 83.3 38.8
 

High thermal resistance

A range of temperatures for long-time application of BCF is 200~600 0C.
 Short-term impact of temperatures – up to 700 0C; single impact of temperatures – up to 1000 0C.

Compatibility of BCF with other materials

High compatibility of BCF with other materials (metals, plastic, glues) during producing process.
Materials made on BCF basis can be processed with application of different “cold” technologies, such as moulding, winding, pultrusion, sputtering, etc.

See article. Prospects of application of materials made from basalt fibers


 

The main BCF products are basalt fiber roving in bundles 10 ~ 20 kg in weight and basalt twisted thread (yarn). Basalt fiber roving shall be used for producing chopped basalt fiber, basalt plates for composites, basalt paper, basalt needled mat, basalt chopped strand mat, basalt roving fabrics, road geo textile nets, shaped basalt-plastic materials, reinforcing materials, rebar, composite coatings, and evaporated materials.
Basalt yarn can be used for producing different types of basalt fabrics and reinforcing nets.

BCF FilamentBCF Filament Bobbin of BCF roving Bobbin of BCF rovingBCF chopped fiberBCF chopped fiberBCF twisted thread (yarn)BCF twisted thread (yarn)

Reinforcing meshes and geo grids

Reinforcing meshes and geo gridsReinforcing meshes and geo gridsGBF-25W type of Geo textile nets (grids) have wide prospects of application as reinforcing material at the construction of road, highways and take-off runways; for reinforcement at the construction of dams, at the coast protection works.
BFN-5, BFN-10 nets (meshes) use for reinforcement of plastering covering at the building construction.
BFN-4, BFN-5 nets can use as reinforcing material of abrasive disks for cutting metal.
BFN-1 nets can be used as filters for industrial and municipal waste water, as filters for cleaning of waste gases from dust and industrial drains, for filtration of metals melt during casting.

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Базальтовое непрерывное волокно. Первичные материалы

Первичная нить, ровинги, рубленое волокно, крученая нить.

     

Table 1. Characteristics of reinforcing nets for building and road construction.
TypeDensity, g/m²Breaking strength, NTensile deformation at the load, %
warp weft
GBF-25W (25х25) 400+-10% 1200 900 1%
BFN-5 (5х5) 85+-8% 860 920 1%
BFN-10 (10х10) 135+-8% 1260 1380 1%
 

BCF chopped strand matsBCF chopped strand mats

BCF chopped strand mats

Application: manufacturing of composite products of the complex shape (automobile panels, screens, for reinforcing plastic, etc.); small ship construction: for construction of ship hulls and superstructures; composites for shipbuilding and aviation industry;

It can be used for manufacturing of sanitary products; for producing of water tanks, tanks for aggressive liquids, acids, alkalis, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, poisonous substances.

Table 2.  Characteristics of BMC chopped fiber mats
Typeshopped strand mats BMCDensity, g/m²Breaking strength, N  not less Application: composite materials and products of complex shape
BМС-300 300+-10% 116
BМС-450 450+- 8% 138
BМС-600 600+- 7% 164
 

BCF Fabrics and Tapes

Structural fabrics and tapes made from BCF roving for producing composite and electro insulation materials, high durability products.

Fabrics and bands from BCF yarn for manufacturing of printed-circuit boards for electronic industry.

      

Table 3. Characteristics of BWC structural fabrics
Type of fabricsDensity, g/m²Breaking strength, NWeaving
warp weft

BWC-160

160+-10%

780

690

satin

BWC-210

210+-10%

960

880

twill

BWC-360

360+-8%

1620

1440

double plain

BWC-450D

450+-7%

2100

1980

twill (d)

 

BWC450DBWC450DBWC360BWC360BWC210BWC210BWC160BWC160

 

Non woven BCF materials made from basalt chopped fiber

Non woven BCF materials made from basalt chopped fiberNon woven BCF materials made from basalt chopped fiberNon woven BCF materials: including BCF thin felt –paper (type ВС), ВМСfelt, needled punched fabrics ВМС (N) served initial materials for producing of filters for gases and liquids, use as reinforcing materials for manufacturing of composite and electro isolating materials. ВМС (N) needled punched fabrics on the basic of basalt continuous fiber have application in the exhaust system muffler of “Toyota” automobiles during many years. BCF needle – punched fabrics (mats) are materials with a high quality for fire-safe doors, fire walls (gables) and fire proof structures, cable tunneling, for protection of the support frames. Under fire and high temperature action BCF needle – punched fabrics no discharge hazardous substances, it is possible to apply it for temperature of standard flame. Basalt Fiber needled mat are made by random entanglement of single chopped fibers to form a three - dimension structure. This structure gives stability to BCF needle – punched products; its can use as thermal insulation for gas-compressor units of the gas-main pipeline station. These BCF materials have a good heat insulating and soundproof characteristics.

 

Table 4. Non woven materials made from BCF
TypeDensity, g/m²Technology of productionApplication

ВС-10

10+-10%

Paper production

Filters for gases and liquids

Thermal insulating and soundproof materials.

Fire resistance materials

ВС-20

20+-10%

ВС-30

30+-10%

BMC-400 N

400+-10%

Needle punched technology

BMC-600 N

600+-10%

ВМС - 300

300+-10%

Chopping and spray up

ВМС - 600

600+-10%

 

COMPOSITES made from BCF roving

BCF roving use for manufacturing of shaped basalt-plastic materials, basalt-plastic rebar and rods, for production of chemically proof products: pipes, cylinders, tanks for aggressive liquids, acids, alkalis, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, poisonous substances.

Basalt-plastic rebar. Various shape basalt-plastic composites

 
Basalt-plastic composites: tubes, high pressure vehicles, pipes of big diameter

  

 
Basalt-plastic composites made from BCF

 

 

 

Basalt fiber has specific ranges of use due to its properties. As basalt fiber is characterized by chemical and thermal stability, this material can be used in areas where the use of other materials is inefficient. For example, basalt fiber can be used in production of geo textiles, reinforcing materials, high-temperature filters, materials for automobile industry, reinforcing nets, composite materials, for reinforcing concrete building structures and road asphaltic-concrete pavements and for producing waterproof materials. The companies that use glass fiber and carbon fiber for producing composite materials can use basalt fiber for this purpose.

The data on materials based on basalt continuous fiber, products from these materials, and the branches of industry using the materials

MaterialProductIndustry
Raw material: basalt continuous fiber with diameter of 6 - 9 mm
Basalt fiber roving
Basalt twisted thread for textile industry
Knitted fabric
Woven fabric
Insulation cloth, nets
Thin reinforcing cloth
Electrical insulation materials (plastics roll, printed-circuit boards)
Facing and fireproof materials
Electrical industry
Electronic industry
Chemical industry
Production of plastics and building materials
Raw material: basalt continuous fiber with diameter of 10 …15 mm
Basalt roving
Roving cloth and nets
Canvas
Chopped fiber
Needled felt
Shaped basalt plastic products
Basalt plastic Rods and Rebar
Fittings
Pipes
Containers
Chopped fiber for reinforcing of plastics
Reinforcing roving cloth
Geo textiles for reinforcement of pavement, geo grids, coast protection
Heat insulating products from needled felt
Electrical industry
Chemical industry
Construction material industry Production of plastics and building materials
Power industry
Engineering industry
Automobile industry
Shipbuilding
Raw material: basalt continuous fiber with diameter of 15 …19 mm
Basalt roving
Canvas
Chopped basalt fiber
Reinforcing nets
Roving cloth for basalt-plastic products
Concrete and coatings reinforced with Chopped fiber
Reinforcing material for brake blocks
Geotextiles
Construction material industry
Engineering industry
Automobile industry
Road construction
Industrial construction
Raw material: continuous basalt fiber with diameter more than 19 mm
Chopped fiber Material for reinforcing concrete and asphaltic-concrete road pavements Engineering industry
Construction material industry
Road construction
Industrial construction
 

Construction. Road and Earthquake Proof construction

Structural and finishing materials, reinforcing materials for asphaltic-concrete road pavements, highways and take-off runways; reinforcing meshes. See article Information about application of basalt chopped fiber for reinforcing of concrete and asphalt-concrete.

Basalt-plastic rod and rebar. More information Guidance of the Scientific-and-Research Institute of Ferro-Concrete, Moscow city, RF.

Geotextiles, geogrids. Appliancation of basalt fiber based materials in road building
Basalt-plastic composites, roofing materials, waterproof materials for construction.

Construction material industry:

  • Basalt chopped fiber for reinforcing of concrete and asphaltic-concrete structures, self-leveling floors, finishing covering
  • Reinforcing plastering nets, waterproof materials for roof and underground structures
  • Corrosion-resistant insulating materials with strength exceeding the strength of stainless steel
  • Incombustible and fireproof composite materials for nuclear power plants, oil-refining and chemical plants, heat-insulating partitions in high-rise buildings.

Hydraulic engineering construction: reinforcing materials for dams and offshore platforms, corrosion-preventing materials. Port constructions, sea platforms - reinforcing and constructional materials made from basalt-plastics; paint and varnish proof coverings of bridges, tunnels; waterproof coverings for ferro-concrete installations; nonflammable and heat-resistant paints and varnish coverings.

Municipal engineering: composites, big diameter pipelines of water supply and sewage water, elements of sewerage system, filters for waste water at sewage water treatment plants.

Machinery construction: composite materials, constructional materials, constructions suitable for environment with strong vibrations & alternating load, grids for reinforcement of cutoff wheel, sound-proof materials, heat insulation of thermal equipment, filters for cleaning of waste gases from dust and industrial drains.

Motor-car construction: heat isolation material for manufacturing of automobile mufflers, panels, screens, plastics, reinforcing material for shoes & disks, constructional plastics, nonflammable composite materials, cords for automobile tire covers, chopped fiber for reinforcing plastic, etc. BCF roving used at the production of fuel tanks, LPG & compressed NG cylinders. Anticorrosive, with great dispatch and wears proof coverings of the bottoms of cars.

See Article. Application of the basalt continuous fiber materials in automobile construction.  

Shipbuilding: seawater-proof composite materials & products, heat & sound insulation for ship installations, equipment; heat-insulated plates for ship hulls & engine compartments, structural materials. Small ship construction: for construction of ship hulls & superstructures, as well as corrosion-proof, reinforced paint-lacquer coverings of ship hulls & superstructures

Carriage engineering: structural composites and products, flame-retardant heat and sound isolation materials of carriages; reinforcing of structural plastics, noncombustible materials, electro insulation materials; anti-wear of lacquer coating

Aircraft industry: composite materials for cabins and structural components, heat-insulating and soundproof materials closed by the waterproofing fabrics for engines and fuselages, constructional composite and high-temperature materials, BCF needled punched mat used for gas-transfer aggregates.

Power industry: heat-insulting materials for steam generators and steam turbines, electric insulating materials, cores of wires for high-voltage power transmission lines, incombustible heat-insulating and structural materials for nuclear power engineering, antiradiation materials.

Chemical industry - production of chemically proof materials and products, such as: pipes, tanks for aggressive liquids, acids, alkalis, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, poisonous substances. Chemically proof covering of tanks, pipelines, metal constructions, ferro-concrete constructions. Filters for cleaning from dust, filters for exit gases and industrial wastes, high-temperature filters.

Petrochemical industry - chemical and wear-proof coverings of tanks, pipelines, oil pipelines; nonflammable coverings & composites; fire-resistant composites and insulating materials; oil pipes.

Metallurgy - thermo-insulation materials for thermal equipment, furnaces, recuperators, pipelines; filters made from BCF for filtration of metals melt during casting; filters for clearing of waste gases from dust at ore-mining & processing plants; sewage water filters

Cryogenic engineering: heat-insulating materials for equipment for producing liquefied gases, including: liquid oxygen, nitrogen, etc.

 

 
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